Resources on King Dingane, his historical memory, and his capital uMgungundlovu

Initiated by Henry Fagan

The following bibliography comprises a list of resources pertinent to the study of King Dingane kaSenzangakhona; contested representations of his historical memory; and his capital of uMgungundlovu. Readers can expect to find accounts by European missionaries and travellers to uMgungundlovu; biographical and historical works touching on Dingane; historical literature as well as theatrical works produced by Africans during the early twentieth-century; and a broad range of historical works dating from the time of the earliest written productions in the early nineteenth-century right up until the present, including newspaper articles, unpublished papers, and speeches. In cases where hyperlinks are provided, readers will either be connected to where the work in question is housed digitally on EMANDULO, to an external URL where the work can be viewed online, or to a URL where the work can be purchased.

Arbousset, Thomas. Excursion missionnaire dans les Montagnes bleues: suive de la

Notice sur les Zoulas. Edited Ricard, Alain, David Ambrose, and Albert Brutsch.  Paris: Karthala Editions, 2000.

Arbousset, Thomas. Narrative of An Exploratory Tour North-East of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope by the Revs. T. Arbousset and F. Daumas, translated by Brown, John Croumbie. Cape Town: A. S. Robertson and Saul Solomon, 1846 [1842].

Arbousset, Thomas. Relation d’un voyage d’exploration au nord-est de la Colonie du Cape de Bonne-Espérance, entrepris dans le mois de mars, avril et mai 1836 par Mm. T. Arbousset et F. Daumas. Paris: Arthus Bertrand, 1842.

Arbousset, Thomas and François Daumas.  “Carte du Voyage de Mrs. Mrs. les Missionnaires T. Arbousset & F. Daumas au nord des Bassoutos. Morija Juin 1836”.  Journal des Missions Évangèliques 11 (1836), pages between 320 and 321.

Becker, Peter. Rule of Fear: The Life and Times of Dingane King of the Zulu. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1964.

Bird, John. Annals of Natal, 1495 to 1845. Pietermaritzburg: P. Davies, 1888.

Bonar, Andrew Redman. Incidents of Missionary Enterprise Illustrative of the Progress of Christianity in Heathen Countries, and of the Researches, Sufferings and Adventures of Missionaries. London: Nelson, 1852.

Bonner, Philip. “Division and Unity in the Struggle: African Politics on the Witwatersrand in the 1920s.” African Studies Seminar Paper, University of the Witwatersrand, 1992.

Bonner, Philip. “’Home Truths’ and the Political Discourse of the ICU”.  Paper presented at the Biennial Conference of the South African Historical Society, University of Western Cape, 11–14 July 1999.

Bonner, Philip. Kings, Commoners and Concessionaires: The Evolution and Dissolution of the Nineteenth-Century Swazi State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.  

Brown, A. “Mgungundlovu”. Unpublished Report, Department of Archaeology at the Transvaal Museum, 1979.

Brutsch, Albert. “Arbousset and the Discovery of Mont-Aux-Sources, Lesotho.” Basutoland Notes and Records 7 (1968), 49-56.

Bryant, Alfred Thomas. Olden Times in Zululand and Natal, containing earlier political history of the Eastern Nguni Clans. London: Longmans, Green & Co, 1929.

Bryant, Alfred Thomas. Untitled. Ilanga Lase Natal. Durban, 30 November, 1906.

Bryant, Alfred Thomas. The Zulu People: As They Were Before the White Man Came. New York: Greenwood Press, 1948.

Bryce, James.  Impression of South Africa. London: Macmillan and Company, 1899.

Bulpin, Thomas Victor. Natal and the Zulu Country. Cape Town: Books of Africa, 1966.

Bulpin, Thomas Victor. Shaka’s Country: A Book of Zululand. Cape Town: Howard B. Timmins, 1952.

Buthelezi, Mangosuthu Gatsha. “King Dingane kaSenzangakhona: Second King of the Zulu Nation”. Speech delivered at the unveiling of King Dingane’s tombstone in Ingwavuma, KwaZulu-Natal, 18 June 1983.

Buthelezi, Mangosuthu Gatsha. “Let’s Unite to Rebuild the Cradle of a New Order”. Sunday Times, 28 March 1999.

Buthelezi, Mangosuthu Gatsha. Speech delivered at Ingwavuma, June 1983.

Campbell, Killie . “Umgungundhlovu – Dingaan’s Kraal, Information collected from Old Zulus”. Killie Campbell Africana Library Manuscript Collection. Manuscript Collection 61. Durban.

Casalis, Eugène. “Biographical Notice on the life, conversation and death of Manoah, member of the Church of the Thaba-Bossiu, among the Béchuanas-Bassoutos (South Africa), 1843.” Translated by Morelli, Ettore.  Unpublished transcript sourced from the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, translation prepared for the Archive and Public Culture research initiative, 2020 [1843].

Champion, George. Journal of the Rev. George Champion, American Missionary in Zululand, 1835–9, edited by Booth, Alan R. Cape Town: C. Struik, 1967.

Chase, John Centlivres. The Natal Papers. Cape Town: South African Library, 1955.

Cobbing, Julian. “A Tainted Well: the Objectives, Historical Fantasies, and Working Methods of James Stuart, with counter-argument”. Journal of Natal and Zulu History 11 (1988), 115-154.

Colenso, John William. Izindatyana zabantu: Kanye Nezindaba Zas’Enatal. Church of England Missions. Pietermaritzburg: May and Davis, 1859.

Cope, Anothony Trevor. Editor.  Izibongo: Zulu Praise Poems. London: Oxford University Press, 1968.

Cory, G. Die Retief-Dingaan Ooreekoms. Cape Town: Nasionale Pers, 1924.

Cory, George. The Rise of South Africa. Cape Town: Longman, 1965.

Couzens, Tim and Nick Visser. H.I.E. Dhlomo: Collected Works. Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1985.

Cronin, Michael. “Mgungundlovu”. Honours dissertation, University of Cape Town, 1975.

Cubbin, Anthony Edward. Origins of the British Settlement at Port Natal, May 1824-July 1842. Matatiele: s.n., 1983.

Cubbin, Anthony Edward. “Retief’s Negotiation with Dingana: An Assessment”. Workshop paper, History Workshop at the University of Natal, 1990.

Cubbin, Anthony Edward. “The English Alliance with the Voortrekkers against the Zulus during March and April 1838. Historia 38, no. 2 (1988), 63-73.

Deane, J.N. The Deterioration of Race Relations in Natal-Zululand, 1824–1838. Pietermaritzburg: s.n., 1968.

De Klerk, Willem Abraham.  The Puritans in Africa: A Story of Afrikanerdom. New York: Collins, 1975.

Delegorgue, Adulphe. Travels in southern Africa 1, translated by Webb, Fleur, edited Alexander, Stephanie and Colin de B. Webb. Pietermaritzburg: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 1990 [1847].

Delmont, Elizabeth. “The Voortrekker Monument: Monolith to Myth”. South African Historical Journal, 29, 1993.

Dhlomo, Herbert Isaac Ernest. 1, 2 and 3 (plays/drama). Herbert Dhlomo Papers, Killie Campbell Manuscripts 8282/4. Killie Campbell Library, Durban.

Dhlomo, Herbert Isaac Ernest. “African Drama and Research”. Native Teachers’ Journal 28 (1939), 129–132.

Dhlomo, Herbert Isaac Ernest.  Dingana (stage play), manuscript 15, Killie Campbell Library, University of KwaZulu-Natal.

Dhlomo, Herbert Isaac Ernest.  “Three Famous African Authors I knew: R.R.R. Dhlomo”. Inkundla ya Bantu, August 1946.

Dhlomo, Herbert Isaac Ernest. Valley of a Thousand Hills. Durban: Knox Publishing Company, 1941).

Dhlomo, Herbert Isaac Ernest. The Literary Theory and Criticism of H.I.E. Dhlomo, edited by Visser, Niek. Special edition of English in Africa 4, no. 2, 1997.

Dhlomo, O. “A Zulu Perspective of the Battle of Blood River-1838”.  Paper presented at the conference of the Historical Association of South Africa, University of South Africa, 1988.

Dhlomo, Rolfes Robert Reginald. Izikhali Zanamuhla: imifanekiso idwetshwe ngu Gerard Bhengu. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1935.

Dhlomo, Rolfes Robert Reginald. UDingane kaSenzangakhona. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter and Shooter, 1936.

Dube, John. Insila kaShaka. Pinetown: Marrianhill Mission Press, 1930.

Dube, John. uShembe. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1936.

Duminy, Andrew and Bill Guest. Editors. Natal and Zululand: From Earliest Time to 1910: A New History. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 1989.

Du Toit, André. “No Chosen People: The Myth of the Calvinist Origins of the Afrikaner Nationalism and Racial Ideology”. American Historical Review 88, no. 4 (1983), 920-952.

Du Toit, André and L. Steenkamp. Bloedrivierse Eeufees Gedenboek: 16 December 1938. Pietermaritzburg: Natalse Pers, 1939.

Erasmus, Diderick Justin. “Rethinking the Great Trek: New Perspectives on the Causes of Accelerated Boer Conquest outside the Cape Colony after 1836”. Paper presented at the South African Historical Society conference, Rhodes University, 1995.

Etherington, Norman. “The Great Trek in Relation to the Mfecane: A Reassessment”. South African Historical Journal, 25, no. 1 (1991), 3-21.

Etherington, Norman. “Zulu Kings, Coronations, and Conversations with Colonial Officials”.  South African Historical Journal 39, no. 1 (1998), 228-235.

Forsyth, Paul. “The Past in the Service of the Present: The Political Use of History by Chief A.N.M.G. Buthelezi 1951–1991”. South African Historical Journal, 26, 1992, 74–92.

Fuller, Claude. LouisTrichardt’s Trek across the Drakensberg, 18371838. Cape Town: Van Riebeeck Society, 1932.

Fuze, Magema. Abantu Abamnyama: Lapa Bavela Ngakona. Pietermaritzburg: City Printing Works, 1922.

Fuze, Magema. The Black People and Whence They Came: A Zulu View, edited by Cope, Anthony Trevor. Translated by Lugg, Harry Camp. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 1979 (1922).

Fynn, Henry Francis. The Diary of Henry Francis Fynn: Compiled from Original Sources, edited by Malcolm, Daniel Mck. and James Stuart. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1950.

Gardiner, Allen Francis. Narrative of a Journey to the Zoolu Country in South Africa. London: William Crofts, 1836.

Gcumisa, M. S. S. Isilulu Semicabango. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1981.

Genge, Manelisi. “Power and Gender in Southern African History: Power Relations in the era of Queen Labotsibeni Gwamile Mdluli of Swaziland, ca. 1875–1921”. PhD thesis, Michigan State University, 1999.

Gerdener, G.B.A.  Sarel Cilliers: Die Vader van Dingaansdag. Pretoria: J.L. van Schaik, 1924.

Gibson, James Young. The Story of the Zulus. Pietermaritzburg:  P. Davis and Sons, 1903.

Gill, Stephen. A Short History of Lesotho: From the Late Stone Age Until the 1993 Elections. Morija: Morija Museum and Archives, 1993.

Gon, Philip and Rosemary Mulholland. The First Zulu Kings. Johannesburg: Ad Donker, 1985.

Gray, Stephen. Editor. The Natal Papers of ʻJohn Rossʼ: Loss of the Brig Mary at Natal with early recollections of that settlement and Among the Caffres. Durban: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 1992.

Grobler, Jackie. “The Retief Massacre of 6 February 1838 Revisited”. Historia 56, no. 2. (2011), 113-132.

Grout, Lewis. Life among the Zulu-Kafirs of Natal and Zulu-land, South African. With map, and illustrations, largely from original photographs. Philadelphia: Presbyterian Publication Committee, 1864.

Guy, Jeff.  “Dingane kaSenzangakhona: The Historical Background and Secondary Sources”. Introduction to Historical Studies, University of Natal, 1995.

Guy, Jeff. “Making Words Visible: Aspects of Orality, Literacy, Illiteracy and History in Southern Africa”.  South African Historical Journal 31, no. 1 (1994), 3-27.

Guy, Jeff. “Re-interpretations of Zulu perspectives of the Boer/Zulu conflict in the 1830s”. Paper presented at a seminar on Impi yaseNcome/Blood River, University of Zululand, 1988.

Guy, Jeff. Remembering the Rebellion: The Zulu Uprising of 1906. Scottsville: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 2005.

Guy, Jeff. “Shaka kaSenzangakhona: A Reassessment”. Journal of Natal and Zulu History 16, no. 1 (1996), 1–30.

Haggard, H. Rider. Marie. London: Cassell, 1912.

Haggard, H. Rider. Nada the Lily. London: Longmans, Green and Company, 1892.

Hall, Martin. “The Ecology of the Iron Age in Zululand”. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, 1980.

Hamilton, Carolyn, Bernard Mbenga and Robert Ross (editors). The Cambridge History of South Africa Volume 1: From Early Times to 1885. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Hamilton, Carolyn. “A Fragment of the Jigsaw: authority and control amongst the early nineteenth-century northern Nguni”. Honours dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand, 1980.

Hamilton, Carolyn.  “Ideology, Oral Traditions and the Struggle for Power in the Early Zulu kingdom”. Master’s dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand, 1985. 

Hamilton, Carolyn. Terrific Majesty: The Powers of Shaka Zulu and the Limits of Historical Invention. Cape Town: David Philip, 1998.

Henthorn, David. I., John Parkington, Robert C. Reid., Heinz Rüther, J. M. W. Fox and P. L. McFadden. “An Archaeomagnetic Study of Mgungundlovu”. Goodwin Series 3 (1979), 149-158.

Hlalele, Joseph. Dingane. Maseru: Catholic Centre, 1952.

Hlengwa, M.A., A.T. Kheswa and M.S.S Gcumisa. Amaqoma. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter and Shooter, 1992.

Hofmeyr, Isabel. “Popularising History: The Case of Gustav Preller”.  In Regions and Repertoires: Topics In South African Politics And Culture, edited by Clingman, Stephen, 60-83. Randburg: Ravan Press, 1991.

Hofmeyr, Isabel. We spend our years as a tale that is told: Oral historical narrative in a South African chiefdom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Publishers, 1994.

Isaacs, Nathaniel. Travels and Adventures in Eastern Africa, Descriptive of the Zoolus, their Manners, Customs, etc. etc. with a sketch of Natal volume 1. London: E. Churton, 1836. 

Isaacs, Nathaniel. Travels and Adventures in Eastern Africa, Descriptive of the Zoolus, their Manners, Customs, etc. etc. with a sketch of Natal volume 2. London: E. Churton, 1836. 

Jaffe, Hosea ‘Mnguni’. Three Hundred Years. Unity Movement History Series. Cape Town: New Era Fellowship, 1952.

Kalipeni, E. and P.T Zeleza. Editors. Sacred Spaces and Public Quarrels: African Cultural and Economic Landscapes. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1999.

Krauss, Ferdinand. “The Natal Voortrekkers and their War with the Zulu”. Historia 14, no. 1 (1969), 22-42.

Kunene, Mazisi.  “An Analytical Survey of Zulu Poetry both Traditional and Modern’. MA dissertation, Natal University, 1957.

Kunene, Mazisi. “Magolwane, the Greatest Zulu Poet”. AfroAsian Writings, 1, 4, 1970.

Kunene, Mazisi. “Portrait of Magolwane, the Great Zulu Poet. Cultural events in Africa, no. 32 (1967), 1-14.

Kunene, Mazisi. The Ancestors and the Sacred Mountain: Poems. London: Heinemann, 1982.

Kunene, Mazisi.  Zulu Poems. New York: Africana Publishing Corporation, 1970

Kuper, Adam. “The Death of Piet Retief”. Social Anthropology 4, no. 2 (1996), 133-143.

Laband, John. Rope of Sand: The rise and the fall of the Zulu kingdom in the nineteenth century. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball, 1995.

La Hausse de Lalouviere, Paul. “Ethnicity and History in the Careers of Two Zulu Nationalists: Petros Lamula (c. 1881–1948) and Lymon Maling (c. 1889–1936)”, PhD thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, 1992.

La Hausse de Lalouviere, Paul. Restless Identities: Signatures of Nationalism, Zulu Ethnnicty and History in the Lives of Petros Lamula (c. 1881-1948) and Lymon Maling (1889 – c. 1936). Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 2000.

Lamula, Petros. Isabelo sikaZulu. Pietermaritzburg: s.n, 1936.

Lamula, Petros. uZulu kaMalandela: A Most Practical and Concise Compendium of African History Combined with Genealogy, Chronology, Geography and Biography. Durban: s.n., 1924.

Lewis, Hester. “’n Westerse Interpretasie van die Genius Loci van Mgungundlovu”. South African Journal of Art History 9 (1993), 58-67.

Liebenberg, Ben. J. “Mites Rondom Bloedrivier en die Gelofte”. South African Historical Journal 20, no. 1 (1998), 17-32.

Luthuli, Albert. Let My People Go: An Autobiography. Glasgow: Collins, 1962.

MacMillan, William Miller.  Bantu, Boer and Briton: The Making of the South African Native Problem.  Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963.

Malan, Jan Hendrik. Boer en Barbaar, of, Die Geskiedenis van die Voortrekkers tussen die Jare 1835–1840: en Verder van die Kaffernasies met wie hulle in Aanraking Gekom het. Bloemfontein: Nasionale Pers, 1918.

Mandela, Nelson. “Posterity will Prove that I was Innocent”. In Nelson Mandela: From Freedom to the Future; Tributes and Speeches, edited by Asmal, K., D. Chidester and W. James. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball, 2003.

Mandela, Nelson. “Reconciliation Day”. In Nelson Mandela: From Freedom to the Future; Tributes and Speeches, edited by Asmal, K., D. Chidester and W. James. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball, 2003.

Mangosuthu Buthelezi, speech delivered at an unknown location, 24 September 1981.

Mangosuthu Buthelezi, speech delivered at Imbali, 6 December 1983.

Mangosuthu Buthelezi, speech delivered at Ingwavuma, June 1983.

Mangosuthu Buthelezi, speech delivered at the inauguration of the monument at Ncome/Blood River, 16 December 1998.

Mann, Robert James. The Zulus and Boers of South Africa: A Fragment of Recent History. Pretoria: State Library, 1968.

Marks, Shula. The Ambiguities of Dependence in South Africa: Class, Nationalism and the State in 20th Century Natal. Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1986.

Masilela, Ntongela. The Historical Figures of the New African Movement, Volume 1. Trenton: Africa World Press, 2014.

Masuku, T. M.  Izikhali zeMbongi. Pretoria: J.L. van Schaik, 1971.

Meintjies, Johannes. The Voortrekkers: The Story of the Great Trek and the Making of South Africa. London: Cassell, 1973.

Mitchell, Peter. The Archaeology of southern Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Mitford, Bertram. The Induna’s Wife. London: F. V. White and Co, 1898.

Moodie, T. Dunbar. The Rise of Afrikanerdom: Power, Apartheid and Afrikaner Civil Religion. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.

Msimang, C.T.  Buzani kuMkabayi. Pretoria: De Jager-Haum, 1984.

Mtshali, L. Opening Address at seminar on the Re-interpretation of the Battle of Ncome/Blood River, University of Zululand, 30 October 1998.

Mutwa, Credo. Indaba, My Children. Edinburgh: Payback Press, 1998.

Naidoo, Jay. “Was the Retief-Dingane Treaty a Fake?” History in Africa 12 (1985), 187-210.

Natal Archive Depot, Commission of Enquiry into Native Riots in Natal, Police report to the Officer in Charge of the Criminal Investigation Department, Durban, 9 September 1929.

Natal Archive Depot, Department of Justice, Report by J. Lebitsa, Native Detective Sergeant to the Detective Head Constable of Johannesburg, who forwarded the report to the Commissioner of Police in Pretoria, December 1929.

Natal Archive Depot, Department of Justice, Sergeant Arnold’s Report on meeting of 13 December 1930.

Natal Archive Depot, Department of Justice, South African Police Report, East London Criminal Investigation Department offices, 11 December 1930, to the Commissioner of Police.

Natal Archive Depot, Department of Justice, Statement by Isaac Montoeli, Independent Intensive Care Unit meeting on 9 November 1930, Newtown Market Square, Johannesburg.

Ndlovu, Sifiso Mxolisi. African Perspectives of King Dingane kaSenzangakhona: The Second Monarch of the Zulu Kingdom. Cham: Palgrave McMillan, 2017.

Ndlovu, Sifiso Mxolisi and Peter Limb.  “African Royalty, Popular History and AbantuBatho”. The People’s Paper: A Centenary History and Anthology of AbantuBatho, edited by Limb, Peter, 226-254. Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2012.

Ndlovu, Sifiso Mxolisi. “A Reassessment of Women’s Power in the Zulu Kingdom”. In Zulu Identities: Being Zulu, Past and Present, edited by Carton, Benedict, John Laband, and Jabulani Sithole, 111-121. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.

Ndlovu, Sifiso Mxolisi. “‘He Did What Any Other Person in his Position Would Have Done to Fight the Forces of Invasion and Disruption’: Africans, the Land and Contending Images of King Dingane (‘the Patriot’) in the Twentieth Century, 1916–1950s”. South African Historical Journal 38, no. 1 (1998), 99-143.

Ndlovu, Sifiso Mxolisi. “Johannes Nkosi and the Communist Party of South Africa: Images of “Blood River” and King Dingane in the late 1920s–1930”. History and Theory 39, no. 4 (2000), 111-132.

Ndlovu, Sifiso Mxolisi. “Mandela’s Presidential Years: An Africanist View”. In The Cambridge Companion to Nelson Mandela, edited by Barnard, Rita. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Ndlovu, Sifiso Mxolisi. “The Changing African Perceptions of King Dingane in Historical Literature: A Case Study in the Construction of Historical Knowledge in 19th and 20th Century South African History”. PhD thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, 2001.

Ndlovu, Sifiso Mxolisi. “Zulu Nationalist Literary Representations of King Dingane”. In Zulu Identities: Being Zulu, Past and Present, edited by Carton, Benedict, John Laband, and Jabulani Sithole, 97-110. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.

Ngubane, Jordan K. “Three Famous African Journalists I Knew: R.V. Selope Thema”. Inkundla yaBantu, Second Fortnight, July 1946.

Ngubane, Jordan K. Ushaba: The Hurtle to Blood River: A Zulu uMlando. Washington: Three Continents Press, 1974.

Nxumalo, J.A.W. uMasihambisane. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1961.

Nyembezi, C.S.L. Izibongo zamakhosi. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter, 1958.

Nyembezi, C.L.S. “The Historical Background to the Izibongo of the Zulu Military Age”. African Studies 7, no. 2-3 (1948), 110–125.

Oberholster, Jacobus and James Walton. Dingane’s Kraal: Mgungundlovo. Cape Town: Commission for the Preservation of Natural and Historical Monuments, Relics and Antiques, 1963.

Okoye, Felix. “Dingane: A Reappraisal.” The Journal of African History 10, no. 2 (1969), 221-235.

Omer-Cooper, John. The Zulu Aftermath: A Nineteenth Century Revolution in Bantu Africa. London: Longman, 1966.

Owen, Francis, Joseph Kirkman, and Richard Brangan Hulley. The Diary of the Rev. Francis Owen, MA: Missionary with Dingaan in 1837-38, Together with Extracts from the Writings of the Interpreters in Zulu, Messrs Hulley and Kirkman, edited by Cory, George Edward. Cape Town: The Van Riebeeck Society, 1926.

Parkington, John and Michael Cronin. “The Size and Layout of Mgungundlovu 1829-1838”. Goodwin Series no. 3 (1979), 133-148.

Peterson, Bhekizizwe. Monarchs, Missionaries and African Intellectuals: African Theatre and the Unmaking of Colonial Marginality. New York: African World Press, 2000. 

Peterson, Bhekisizwe. “The Black Bulls of H.I.E. Dhlomo: Ordering History out of Nonsense”. English in Africa 18, no. 1 (1991), 25-49.

Peterson, Bhekisizwe. “’The ties that bind’: Weaving continental and international cultural fraternities”.  South African Democracy Education Trust, Road to Democracy in South Africa, Volume 5, African Solidarity, Part 2.  Pretoria: Unisa Press, 2015, 883–884.

Pheko, S. E. M.  Apartheid: The Story of the Dispossessed People. London: Maram Books, 1984.

Pheko, S. E. M. Azania: Answer to Slave Colonial South Africa. New York: New Africa Institute of Positive Education, 1991.

Pheko, S. E. M.  South Africa: The Betrayal of a Colonised People: Issues of International Human Rights Law. Johannesburg: ISAL Publications, 1990.

Plug, Ina and A. Brown. “Mgoduyanuka: faunal remains”. Annals of the Natal Museum 25, no. 1. (1982), 115-121.

Plug, Ina and Frans Roodt. “The Faunal Remains from Recent Excavations at uMgungundlovu”. South African Archaeological Bulletin 45 (1990), 47-52.

Potgieter, A. J. “Die Swartes aan die Witwatersrand, 1900–1933”. PhD thesis, Rand Afrikaans University, 1978.

Preller, Gustav and W. Blommaert.  Die RetiefDingaan Oorenkoms. Cape Town: Nasionale Pers, 1924.

Preller, Gustav. Die RetiefDingaan Traktaat in Sketse en Opstelle. Pretoria: J.L. van Schaik, 1928.

Rikhotso, T.M. Dingane: King of the Zulu. Braamfontein: Sasavona Publishers, 1982.

Ritter, E. A. Shaka Zulu: The Rise of the Zulu Empire. London: Longman, 1955.

Roberts, Brian. The Zulu Kings. London: Hamish Hamilton Limited, 1974.

Roodt, Frans. “Evidence for girls’ initiations rites in the Bheje umuzi at eMgungundlovu.” Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Etnologie 15, no. 1 (1992), 9-14.

Roodt, Frans. “Koning Dingane se woonhut by Mgungundlovu”. South African Journal of Ethnography 15, no. 4 (1992), 95-101.

Roodt, Frans. “‘n Rekonstruksie van Zoeloe geelkoperbewerking by eMgungundlovu”. Master’s dissertation, University of Pretoria, 1983.

Roux, Edward. Time Longer than Rope: A History of the Black Man’s Struggle for Freedom in South Africa. London: Gollancz, 1948.

Rycroft, David and Abednego Bhekabantu Ngcobo. The Praises of Dingana: Izibongo zikaDingana. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 1988.

Saitowitz, Sharma. “19th Century Glass Trade Beads: From Two Zulu Royal Residences”. Master’s dissertation, University of Cape Town, 1990.

Saitowitz, Sharma. “Classification of glass trade beads”. Southern African Museums Association Bulletin 18 (1988), 41-45.

Sanders, Peter. Moshoeshoe: Chief of the Sotho. Heinemann: Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 1975.

Skikna, Shelly Ziona. “Son of the Sun and Son of the World: the Life and Works of R.R.R. Dhlomo”. Master’s dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand, 1984.

Skota, Mweli T.D.  African Yearly Register 1957. Wits Historical Papers Research Archive. Section C.

Smith, Andrew. Andrew Smith and Natal: Documents Relating to the Early History of that Province, 1832-1841, edited by Kirby, Percival R. Cape Town: Van Riebeeck Society, 1955.

South African Democracy Education Trust. The Road to Democracy in South Africa, Volume 1, 19601970, second edition. Pretoria: Unisa Press, 2010.

Stuart, James. uKulumetule. London: Longmans, Green and Company, 1925, chapters 2, 3, and 4.

Sundkler, Bengt G.M.  Bantu Prophets in South Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961.

Tambo, Oliver Reginald. “Capture the Citadel” (Speech delivered on 16 December 1969). In Unity in Action: A Short History of the African National Congress (South Africa) 19121982. London: African National Congress, 1980.

Theal, George McCall. History of South Africa since September 1795 (5 volumes). London: Allen & Unwin, 1915-1920.

Theal, George McCall. Maskew Miller’s short history of South Africa & its people: compiled from the published and still unpublished manuscripts of Geo. M. Theal and arranged for use in schools by Thomas Young, edited by Young, Thomas.  Cape Town: T.M. Miller, 1909.

Theal, George McCall. Records of South-Eastern Africa: Collected in Various Libraries and Archive Departments in Europe (9 volumes). London: William Clowes and Sons, 1898-1903.

Theal, George McCall. The History of the Emigrant Boers in South Africa: or, The  story of the Emigrant Boers in South Africa: Or, The Wanderings and Wars of the Emigrant Farmers from Their Leaving the Cape Colony to the Acknowledgment of Their Independence by Great Britain. London: S. Sonnenschein, 1888.

Thema, Selope. “From Cattle Herder to the Editor’s Chair”. Unpublished autobiography. University of Witwatersrand, William Cullen Library, Historical and Literary Papers, AD1787.

Thema, Selope.  ‘“The Voice of the Races of South Africa” vs. the Bantu People of South Africa’, iLanga.

Thom, Hendrik Bernardus. Die Lewe van Gert Maritz. Cape Town: Nasionalse Pers, 1947.

Thompson, Leonoard. The Political Mythology of Apartheid. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.

Unknown author. “The History of Dingaan’s Day”. Umteteli wa Bantu, 15 December 1923.

Vail, Leory and Landeg White. Power and the Praise Poem: southern African voices in history. Charlottesville: University press of Virginia, 1991.

Van Aswegen, H. J. Geskiedenis van SuidAfrika to 1854. Pretoria: Academica, 1989.

Van Der Merwe, Nikolaas, Sharma Saitowitz, Francis Thackeray, Martin Hall and Cedrik Poggenpoel. “Standardized Analyses of Glass Trade Beads from Mgungundlovu and Ondini, Nineteenth Century Zulu Capitals”. The South African Archaeological Bulletin 44, no. 150 (1989), 98-104.

Van Jaarsveld, Floris Albertus. “A Historical Mirror of Blood River”. In The Meaning of History, edited by in Koning, A. and H. Kearie. Pretoria: Unisa Press, 1980.

Van Jaarsveld, Floris Albertus. The Afrikaner’s Interpretation of South African History. Cape Town: Simondium Publishers, 1964.

Vilakazi, Absolom, Bongani Mthethwa and Mthembeni Mpanza. Shembe: The Revitalization of African Society. Johannesburg: Skotaville, 1986.

Vilakazi, Benedict Wallet. “Bantu Views of the Great Trek”, Unpublished article held at the B.W. Vilakazi Collection at the University of the Witwatersrand, 1938.

Vlakazi, Benedict Wallet. Izinkondlo zika B.W. Vilakazi. Johannesburg: Wits University Press and Hodder, 1993.

Vilakazi, Benedict Wallet. Nje nempela. Pinetown: Mariannhill Mission Press, 1944.

Vilakazi, Benedict Wallet. “The Oral and Written Literature in Nguni”,  PhD thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, 1945.

Walker, Eric Anderson. A History of Southern Africa. London: Longman, 1957.

Walker, Eric Anderon. The Great Trek. London: A&C Black, 1938.

Webb, Colin and John Wright. Editors. The James Stuart Archive of Recorded Oral Evidence Relating to the History of the Zulu and Neighbouring Peoples (six volumes). Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 1976-2014.

Whitelaw, Gavin. “Preliminary Results of a Survey of Bulawayo, Shaka kaSenzangakhona’s Capital from about 1820 to 1827”. Southern African Field Archaeology 3 (1994), 107-109.

Wilmsen, Edwin. “Hills and the brilliance of beads: myths and the interpretation of Iron Age sites in southern Africa”. Southern African Humanities 21, no. 1 (2009), 263-274.

Wilson, Monica and Leonard Thompson. Editors. The Oxford History of South Africa, 1: South Africa to 1870.  Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969.

Wood, William. Statements Respecting Dingaan, King of the Zulus. Cape Town: Collard & Co, 1840.

Wright, John and Carolyn Hamilton. “Making Precolonial Histories in South Africa: Past Traditions, Present Debates,” Keynote Address Paper, South African Historical Society, Rhodes University, 1995.

Wright, John and Carolyn Hamilton. “Traditions and Transformations: The Phongolo-Mzimkhulu Region in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries”. In Natal and Zululand: From Earliest Time to 1910: A New History, edited by Duminy, Andrew and Bill Guest, 49-82. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 1989.

Wright, John. “Political Histories of Southern Africa’s Kingdoms and Chiefdoms”. Journal of Southern African Studies 42, no. 6 (2016), 1241-1246.

Zondi, Elliot. Ukufa kukaShaka. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 1960.


Original compilation by FHYA bibliographer, Henry Fagan, 2020.









Online from: 15 Sep 2020

Revision history

Edited at 2020-12-09 09:56:18 by Henry Fagan
Edited at 2020-12-07 15:40:27 by Henry Fagan
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Edited at 2020-09-15 08:45:30 by Niek de Greef
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