Sidingida ngoMgungundlovu

Isethulo se-Five Hundred Year Archive

English Version

 

 

UMgungundlovu (“The enclosure that surrounds the elephant [king]”) kwakuyikomkhulu lombuso wakwaZulu phakathi kweminyaka ka-1829 no-1839.

 

Ngonyaka ka-1828, ngesikhathi uDingane kaSenzangakhona elandela uShaka ekubeni yinkosi yamaZulu, wakha uMgungundlovu endaweni yaseMakhosini eyisizinda samasiko ombuso, eduze kweminye imizi embalwa yasebukhosini eyayihlala amabutho okwakuthiwa amakhanda. Wakhiwe kummango ongaqansile ngokungako ehlanzeni elimamaphakathi neMfolozi Emhlophe, uMgungundlovu wawuyikhanda elikhulu kunawo wonke amanye amakhanda. Usuqediwe ukwakhiwa wawunamaqhugwane abalelwa cishe enkulungwaneni namakhulu amahlanu (1 500) eyizinhla ezisuka kweziyisithupha kuye kweziyisishiyagalombili ezizungeze isibaya sezinkomo esikhulu esivulekile. Kwakuwumuzi oyinhloko wasebukhosini weNkosi uDingane kanye nesigodlo sakhe, kunezindawo zokuhlala zezethenjwa ezingabeluleki bakhe, izivakashi kanye namabutho.

UMgungundlovu kwakuyisikhungo sezepolitiki nezombusazwe esiyinhloko nesiqavile esifundeni, kuhlala njalo kumatasatasa ngomnyakazo wokuphuma nokungena onganqamuki wabantu nezindaba kanye nemibiko. Kwakuyindawo lapho kwakuhlangana khona izinduna zenkosi kanye nezikhulu zombuso, lapho imibiko yezindaba ezibucayi yayiqoqelwa futhi icutshungulwe khona, futhi kuyilapho kwakuthathwa khona izinqumo ngezindaba zezwe nombuso. Amanxusa avela kwamanye amazwe, izihambi kanye nabahweni babemukelwa khona. Phakathi kwabo kwakuyizithunywa ezivela enkosini yamaSwazi kanye namaPutukezi aseMaputo, kungabahwebi babeSuthu, kungabathengisi ababehamba izindawo ngezindawo, kuyizifiki zabelaphi kanye nochwepheshe bamasiko, kuyizithunywa zevangeli ezivela eYurophu kanye nabafuduki bamaBhunu. Emasangweni alomuzi kwakuyilapho kwakusukela khona izithunywa ezingabameleli bombuso kanye nezinhloli ezazijutshelwa emazweni akude.

Diagram of Dingane’s amakhanda, drawn by Hester Roodt (née Lewis) in conjunction with work done by archaeologist Frans Roodt, 1992. Legend based on Frans Roodt (23 June 2020) and James Stuart, uKulumetule (London: Longmans, Green and Company, 1925). Learn more here.

Abesifazane asebekhulile babeqavile eMgungundlovu. Babedlala izindima ezibalulekile ekuthathweni kwezinqumo ezindabeni zepolitiki nezombusazwe ezaziqhubeka njalo, kanye nasekuphathweni nokwengamelwa kwesigodlo esasisikhulu. Ingxenye yesigodlo kwakuwumndlunkulu wabesifazane abasebancane, abakugana kwabo kwakusemqoka ngoba kwakuhlelwa yinkosi ukwakha ngabo ubuhlobo obunezinzuzo ezibhekelela ingomuso.

Izicukuthwane namakhosi amancane ngokufanayo babefika ukuzokhonza nokunikezela ngezethulo nangalokho ababezibongela ngakho enkosini. Babenakekelwa yizindibi ezaziphinde zibhekelele izidingo zabo zenhlalo. Amabutho ayeqoqana ehlala khona ayesebenzela inkosi ngokuncintisana nokuzikhandla ukuzama ukuqhakambisa isibindi nobuqhawe bawo. Kuthi nxa isimo sikhombisa isidingo, kwenziwe amalungiselelo kucijelwe impi. Amaqhawe ayehlonishwa ngokujulile; isibindi sinconywa ngentshiseko.

Kwaziwa okuningi ngoMgungundlovu ukwedlula yonke eminye imizi yakomkhulu yakudala yakulesisifunda. Uhlu lwezincwadi neminye imithombo yolwazi ngoMgungundlovu kuyatholakala lapha.

Ngokwamehlo alabo ababekhona ngalesosikhathi 

Esemusha uThununu kaNonjiya Gcabashe wakwaQwabe waqokwa wuDingane ukuba abe ngenye yezinceku zakhe, umbhekeleli othembekile. UThununu kanye nezinye izinceku okwakungoNgidi kaMcikaziswa wasElangeni kanye noSivivi kaMaqungo Malunga, bahlala isikhathi eside eMgungundlovu besebenzela umuzi wenkosi. Ngokufanayo, uLunguza kaMpukane Mthembu wavakashela eMgungundlovu amahlandla amaningana, ngasekuqaleni ewudibi lukayise, kwathi kamuva wabuthwa waba seMgungundlovu nebutho lakhe elalisebenzela inkosi. Ezinsukwini zawo zobudala lamakhehla amane ashiya imidati nemininingwane ebanzi ngempilo ayeyiphila kanye naleyo ayibona ziqu zawo iphilwa eMgungundlovu. Ukulandisa kwawo kutholakala kwi-FHYA’s James Stuart Archival Curation noma ngokusebenzisa izixhumanisi ezingenhla ngokwamagama omuntu ngomuntu. Ukulandisa kwalamakhehla ngempilo yaseMgungundlovu kwavela ngolimi lwesiZulu encwadini yesikole yakudala, uKulumetule eyahlanganiswa uJames Stuart ngo-1925 (yashicilelwa e-London yi-Longmans, Green and Company). Ungalalela futhi ama-podcasts (indlela yokulalela kusetshenziswa ubuchwepheshe) agxile ekulandiseni kwalamakhehla.

 

“He wore feathers of the mousebird”: Ngidi kaMcikaziswa recounts to James Stuart the fashion of the Zulu kingdom
[No title], Ngidi kaMcikaziswa, 22 October 1905, record of a discussion, James Stuart Papers File 62/notebook 81, page 11. Killie Campbell Africana Library, Durban.
(The version that we reproduce here is drawn from annotated photocopies of a selection of the notes in the James Stuart Papers held at the Killie Campbell African Library, Durban. The selection, annotating and chronological ordering of the notes was part of the preparatory work done by the editors of the published version of these notes which appeared in The James Stuart Archive. (Colin Webb and John Wright (eds.), The James Stuart Archive of Recorded Oral Evidence Relating to the History of the Zulu and Neighbouring Peoples 5 (Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 2001, 28-124.)

Izindaba ngoMgungundlovu zazisabalala kude naseduze. E-Lesotho, ngale kwezintaba zoKhahlamba, izithunywa zevangeli ezaziphume eParis, oEugène Casalis beno Thomas Arbousset, bakwenza kwaba wumsebenzi wabo ukuqoqa izindaba nemibiko ngoMgungundlovu bezithola kumaZulu kanye nabeSuthu ababekade behlala ngaphansi kokubuswa yiNkosi uDingane kodwa kamuva sebethuthele ngale kwezintaba. Ngo-1842, eParis, uArbousset washicilela okunye kwalokhu kulandisa okwakuthintene nomzila wokuwheba owawusuka eThaba Bosiu uye ekomkhulu lakwaZulu. Lokhukulandisa kuyatholakala ebhukwini lezindaba zokuvakasha kwakhe elitholakala lapha ngazozombili izilimi, isiFulentshi kanye nesiNgisi. Ungathola ulwazi oluthe xaxa ngalokhukulandisa kanye nomzila wokuwheba phakathi koMgungundlovu neThaba Bosiu kuleliqoqo elilungiselelwe ngezobuchwepheshe, A Small, and Scarcely Perceptible Pathway to uMgungundlovu.

Ngeminyaka yo-1830, amaKrestu okuqala ayizithunywa zevangeli afika kwelakwaZulu. Avakashela ikomkhulu kwathi oyedwa wawo, uMfu. Francis Owen, wavunyelwa yinkosi ukufundisa eMgungundlovu phakathi kweminyaka ka-1837 no-1838. Umbiko nokulandisa kuka-Owen kanye nalokho kukazakwabo isithunywa sevangeli uAllan Francis Gardiner, kuyatholakala lapha kwi-FHYA’s Additional Resources kuyo le-website.

 

The King’s Quarters: Missionary Allan Francis Gardiner’s Depiction of the interior of Dingane’s hut. Allen Francis Gardiner, Narrative of a Journey to the Zoolu Country in South Africa (London: William Crofts, 1836), between pages 200 and 201.

 

Ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yo-1830 abafuduki bamaBhunu bafika esifundeni baqala ukwenza amalungiselelo okuxoxisana nenkosi ngezindaba zokuthola umhlaba. Kusaqhubeka lolohlelo, iqembu labafuduki bamaBhunu labulawa eMgungundlovu. Ekupheleni kuka-1838, ngemuva kokuhlasela kokuziphindiselela ngabafuduki bamaBhunu, indawo ababezinze kuyo yashiswa ngokomlayelo wenkosi. Kamuva, abafuduki bahlangana nosingamfowabo weNkosi uDingane, uMpande, balwa bayehlula inkosi, eyabe-ke isilandelwa wuMpande esikhundleni sobukhosi ngo-1840.

Imivubukulo

Ukushisa ngokweqile ngesikhathi uMgungundlovu ungqongqiswa wumlilo kwasiza ekulondolozeni iziza zezindlu zalomuzi. Lokhu kwenza inxiwa lalomuzi likulungele ukucwaningwa ngokumba. Umbiko wokuqala ngomvubukulo wenxiwa loMgungundlovu waqoshwa ngo-1971. Ukumba kokuqala ngokobuchwepheshe kwaqala ngo-1974. Ukumba kwaqhubeka ngaphansi kwabavubukuli abehlukahlukene kwaze kwaba wunyaka ka-1994. Amaqoqo emivubukulo athwetshulwe ngezobuchwepheshe ayatholakala kulezizinqolobane, FHYA’s repositories.

 

A photograph of the bead and bangle mould excavated from the fill of the grain pit at the uMgungundlovu archaeological site by the Department of Archaeology from the University of Cape Town in either the January 1974 or June 1975 field season.

Phakathi kwezinto ezatholakala lapho kuvubukulwa kwaba isikhazimulisi sesiCoco, itshe elimpunga sakuhlazana hleze elalisetshenziswa ngabesilisa ukukhazimulisa iziCoco zabo. Indatshana exoxwa ngezithombe ngabavubukuli oJustine Wintjes noGavin Whitelaw egxile kulelitshe iyatholakala lapha.

UMgungundlovu Namuhla

Inxiwa, kanye futhi ikakhulukazi nendawo ezungezile yaseMakhosini okuyilapho amathuna amakhosi akwaZulu kanye nalawo okhokho bawo egcwele khona, ingekhethekile nehlonishwa kakhulu emlandwini wendlu yobukhosi bakwaZulu. Indawo yaseMakhosini kusukela emandulo yilapho kwakwenzelwa khona amasiko ayebhekwa njengangcwele, nanamuhla isahlonishwa ngokujulile futhi inesithunzi esikhulu.

Ngasekuqaleni kwekhulunyaka lamashumi amabili lendawo yabiwa yaba ngeyamapulazi abelungu. UMgungundlovu waba ngaphansi kwepulazi elalinegama lesiBhunu libizwa ngokuthi i-“Moordplaas”. Ngonyaka ka-1922 uhulumeni waseNingizimu Afrika wakha itshe lesikhumbuzo entatshaneni eseduze noMgungundlovu ebizwa ngokuthi ngeyaKwaMatiwane, ukukhumbula abafuduki bamaBhunu ababulawa lapho ngo-1838. UMgungundlovu wamenyezelwa ngokusemthethweni ukuba yisikhumbuzo somlando yi-Historical Monuments Commission ngo-1936. Kuhlanganisa nezinkundla zezimpi ezakhelene nalo, lelinxiwa laba yisisulu sama “trophy hunters” (abazingeli bezilwane ngenjongo yokuhlobisa ngazo kumbe ukwakha izinkumbuzo zokuhlabana kwabo) kanye nezigcwelegcwele ezibizwa ngokuthi ngama “collectors” (“abaqoqi”) ezihlasela izindawo zamagugu zintshontshe ezikutholayo. Amaqoqo ezobuchwepheshe kwinqolobane i-FHYA aqukethe ezinye zezinto ezaqoqwa ngalendlela eMgungundlovu, njengalezo ezalondolozwa uMfundisi P. Stander. Ngonyaka ka-1969 kwaphela nge-Historical Monuments Commission isikhundla sayo sathathwa yi-National Monuments Council, kwasekuthi ngo-1971, inxiwa loMgungundlovu langena ngaphansi kweKwaZulu Monuments Council. Ngo-1997 inhlangano yesifundazwe eyayisandukusungulwa ukubhekelela amagugu nomlando, Amafa, kwabe sekubayiyona eyengamela lelinxiwa. Namuhla lelinxiwa liyingxenye ye-Makhosini Ophathe Heritage Park engaphansi kokulawulwa nguMasipala wasOndini. Ungawubona uMgungundlovu kulelibalazwe elilapha.

Online from: 19 Nov 2020

Explore Our Special Features

Revision history

Edited at 2020-12-10 11:27:28 by Niek de Greef
Edited at 2020-12-09 20:07:37 by Niek de Greef
Edited at 2020-12-09 20:05:08 by Niek de Greef
Edited at 2020-12-09 20:03:27 by Niek de Greef
Edited at 2020-12-09 19:34:28 by Niek de Greef
Edited at 2020-11-25 17:59:25 by Niek de Greef
Edited at 2020-11-25 17:59:24 by Niek de Greef
Edited at 2020-11-25 08:59:34 by Niek de Greef
Edited at 2020-11-24 20:50:32 by Niek de Greef
Edited at 2020-11-24 20:36:54 by Niek de Greef
Edited at 2020-11-23 12:01:15 by Niek de Greef
Edited at 2020-11-23 12:01:04 by Niek de Greef
Edited at 2020-11-23 11:59:52 by Niek de Greef
Edited at 2020-11-19 13:57:45 by Niek de Greef
Edited at 2020-11-19 13:56:43 by Niek de Greef
Edited at 2020-11-19 13:56:39 by Niek de Greef